Dalton Adding Machine Company

Dalton owned Companies
This page created May 11th 2010
The history of James L. Dalton and his Dalton Adding Machine Company


Researched, Complied & edited from material copied from the World Wide Web by Rodney G. Dalton

This article was prompted by a Daltons in History, Volume 10 No 12, December 2007 article.

The Dalton was the first ten key adding machine. It went on to become one of the most popular 10 key adders of the time. Earlier models had glass inserts to allow customers to view the gears actually calculating the answers. By the 1920’s over 150 models of Dalton had been designed.

In 1903, a man named Joseph Boyer secretly enters into an agreement to acquire the Addograph Manufacturing Company, whose director is Hubert Hopkins. The name Hopkins later becomes famous for the Moon–Hopkins machine. James L. Dalton, president of the Addograph Company, formed the Adding Typewriter Company that same year. It was later called the Dalton Adding Machine Company.

In 1914 the Dalton Adding Machine Company moves from Poplar Creek, Missouri to Norwood—at 4923 Beech Avenue between Norwood Avenue and Highland Avenue (later, the location of The Day Company and currently Rumpke). The company was formed in St. Louis in August, 1903, by James L. Dalton as the Adding Typewriter Company.

Origin of the Dalton Adding Machine

James Lewis Dalton, sometimes known as the inventor, but also known as the patentee and marketer of the adding machine. He was the son of Elijah Dalton Sr., son of John Elijah and Susan Sebastian Dalton who came to S.E. Missouri in 1812 from KY and left many descendents in Arkansas. James Lewis or “Jimmie” was born 28 Dec 1866 and was educated at the Lacrosse Collegiate Institute in Izard County, AR. In 1880 at age 14, he was living with his re-married mother, Mary Caroline Myatt/Dalton Arnold and her second husband Asebel (Asel) Arnold. He made an exact model of his mother’s sewing machine in wood, it worked, his first little factory was built in Poplar Bluffs, Missouri.

The patent for the adding machine is dated 11 April 1904 and deposition to James L. Dalton, 20 Apr. 1904, Patent Applications, National Archives, College Park, Maryland. There is conflicting information on who invented the machine, but there is certainty that James Lewis patented the machine and marketed it and successive models internationally. From his headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio the business grew to a $10,000,000 operation

James was a respected member of the Republican Party and was elected to the State Legislature from Butler County, MO. He apparently was the investor/manufacturer/marketer of the adding machine and not the inventor. He moved the Dalton Adding machine Company from Poplar Bluff, MO to Cincinnati in 1914 and the company was bought out by Remington Rand in 1926. Carolyn is fortunate to have one of the machines, the same model as pictured. James Lewis’ House in Poplar Bluff is on the Register of Historic Places, and currently houses a regional art museum. He is buried in Poplar Bluff.

Before we tell the story about James L. Dalton, here is a history of his family

Source: HISTORY of RANDOLPH COUNTY ARKANSAS; by Lawrence Dalton

Published 1946 – 1947

The Dalton family of Randolph county, Arkansas, and Ripley county, Missouri, is descended from one John Dalton who is reputed to have been born in Ireland, and came to the United States about 1760, settling first, with others of the same name, on the present site of Dalton, Georgia. The city was named for his family. From here he entered the Colonial Army and fought in the Revolution. After the close of the war he moved to North Carolina, and in a short time moved up to Virginia. After staying there for a while he removed to Kentucky and then, about 1809 he moved to Madison county, Missouri. Later he moved down into Ripley county, Missouri. Here he spent the balance of his life.

The place where John Dalton settled about 1812, was at what is now known as the old “Dalton Mill” ford on the south fork of Fourche Dumas creek in Union township, Ripley county, Missouri, where the old Warm Springs-Doniphan road crosses the creek. John Dalton and other members of his family lie buried out in the middle of the bottom field, northwest of the ford.

John Dalton, whose wife’s name we do not know, was the father of eight children. Their names were: William, John P. (always called Jack), Elijah, David, Lewis, Sally, Maria and Dinah. Of these eight children we know very little except Elijah, Jack, David and Maria.

Elijah married Zillah Gaines, Feb. 9, 1832. They became the parents of seven children, William, James, Lewis, Elijah, Zimriah, Zilpha, and Levi.

The second wife of Elijah Dalton was Elizabeth Stubblefield, whom he married in 1859. They had one child, Joseph. The last wife of Elijah Dalton was Margaret Johnson, whom he married in 1869.

John P. (Jack), wife’s name not known, was the father of 10 children. Their names were: Adam, Ferguson (called Forg.), Oliver, Isham, Elijah, John, Zillah, Sally, Lively and Nancy.

Maria married Jim Keel. They reared a family near Greenville, Mo., and one of her sons, Jack, married Martha Johnston, a daughter of Lewis B. Johnston.

David Dalton, son of the original John, was born in Kentucky, as were his brothers Jack and Elijah, and came to Ripley county, Missouri, with his parents about 1812. He married Priscilla Dennis of Greenville, Missouri, in 1826. He died in 1859 and his wife died in 1857. They were the parents of the following children: Elijah, David, Priscilla who married John Bond, she and David were twins; Sarah, who married George Matney; Susanne, who married William Cross; Nancy, who married Harrison Davis, and Ruth, who married James Parker.

Of the children of the first Elijah named above, the best known in this section were William, Lewis, Levi and Joseph.

William, born May 30, 1834, died September 7, 1878, married Caroline Myatt. They were the parents of the following children: Zilpha, who married Thomas D. Mock; Zillah, who married Jeff Stubbefield; Rufus C.; Zimriah; Mary Elizabeth, who died in infancy; James L. (the inventor of the Dalton adding machine); Sarah P., who married Ben F. Spikes; Lively A., who married Thomas H. Wells; and Ascenith, who died young. William was the first postmaster of Dalton, Arkansas.

Lewis Dalton, who married Sarah A. Stubblefield in 1860, was the father of two children, Elijah who resided in Pocahontas many years, (and who is the father of Mrs. Lucien Sloan, and two sons, Mack and Lewis), and one daughter, Ascenith, who married Dr. J. W. Dalton.

Levi Dalton was a resident of Doniphan, Ripley county, many years but later moved to Texas. He also resided at Ponder in the same county a number of years.

The youngest son of Elijah Dalton was Joseph, who first married a Miss Ponder and later married Nora McIlroy (who had formerly married James Dalton who died). He spent his entire life on the old homestead near Ponder, Ripley county, Missouri. This is a brief listing of the descendants of Elijah Dalton the son of the original John Dalton.

Of the children of David Dalton, who was a son of the original John, named above, there were (already named above) the daughters whose families moved to Texas many years ago, except James Parker’s family. Two sons of Ruth Dalton Parker are now living. Harrison at Reyno and David at Success. John died during the Civil War. Elijah, who resided at Warm Springs many years was the father of the following children, (he married Grace Jane Head); John C., Nancy, who married William T. Stubblefield; James, who married Nora McIlroy; Mary, who married William T. McIlroy; Malissa, who married William A. Holt, and Rufus and Elijah A.

The other son of David, (son of the original John) was named David. David married Christiana Everett and they became the parents of four children. They were William, Susuan, who married Byron Murphy; Martha P., who married Noah Phillips, and Elijah F. (this Elijah Dalton is the father of the writer of this article). David’s second marriage was to Rachel Young. Their children, who grew to adulthood were Joseph, Ida, Maud, Myrtle, and Fred. Joseph married Dilla Grissom; Ida married Harry Irvine; Maud married Eld. John H Harper; Myrtle married James Garrett and Fred married Mary Garrett.

John P. (Jack) Dalton, son of the original John, named above was the father of 10 children, as already stated. Of these 10 children we have the following information: One of the sons, Ferguson, called “Forg”, was the father of Dr. J. W. Dalton, who married Ascenith, the daughter of Lewis Dalton. One of Jack Dalton’s daughters married Dr. Greenwood. Her name was Zillah. Another daughter, Sally, married Robert Pacton, Jack Dalton had a son, John, who reared a large family. Three of his sons are now living at Patton, Mo. Their names are John, Levi and Albert.

The above is a brief description which touches the high spots of the large Dalton family which came to Ripley county, Missouri, in 1812. The family is very widely scattered at this date. Different “branches” of the family of the original John Dalton are now located in Randolph county, Arkansas, Ripley, and other counties of Missouri, in Oklahoma, Texas, and many other states.

As stated above, John Dalton settled on Fourche creek in Union township, Ripley county, Missouri. His son Elijah settled farther north on the north fork of this same creek. This farm is still owned by the grandsons. David, another son, settled a few miles south of his father, near the state line on Dry creek, a tributary of Fourche. The other son, named above, John P. “Jack”, lived awhile in this section but reared his family in the vicinity of Fredericktown and Greenville, Missouri, as did his sister, Maria Keel. Possibly several years were spent by both the latter at each location.

The reader will note that there have been many sons and daughters of the Dalton family with the same name. This makes it difficult to present a clear picture of the various branches of the family tree. As is noted there has been Elijahs, Davids, Williams, Zilphias and Johns in almost every individual family for seven generations, to say nothing of the duplications of James, Lewis, Joseph, etc.

This article is a rough summary of the family of the writer. Individual articles are also included in this book which give further details of certain families within this one great family. This is true of the writers family and others. The article in this book which include some member of the Dalton family in their family are: Elijah F. Dalton family; James L. Dalton, inventor; the William Tipton Stubblefield-Nancy Dalton Stubblefield family; the John Lamb family; the Spikes family; the Marlette family; the W. L.. “Fayette” Mock family; the A. F. Rickman family, and the Holt family.

James L. Dalton – Inventor

James L. Dalton was born near Ponder, Ripley county, Missouri, December 28, 1866, and died in Poplar Bluff, Missouri, January 10, 1926. He married Clara B. Wright of Doniphan, Missouri, sister of the late Thomas and Joseph Wright, Sr.

To his union was born the following children: Charles, who married Ethel Morrison. They had two children, Clara Alice and Mary Jeane. Charles died in 1924. Grover W., who married Francis Burke. They have two children, James L. Dalton, Jr., and Richard; Phoebe, who is not married, and Mary, who married Lincoln Hinrichs.

Grover and his sisters live in Poplar Bluff. He is a well known business man and the state chairman of the Republican party in Missouri at present.

The parents of James L. Dalton were William M. Dalton and Mary Caroline Myatt, natives of Ripley county, Missouri. William Dalton was born May 30, 1834 and died September 7, 1878. His wife was born October 9, 1838 and died April 12, 1890.

William Dalton was a son of Elijah Dalton, who was a son of John Dalton who settled in southern Ripley county, Missouri, about 1812. A complete list of the Dalton family is included in this book.

The brothers and sisters of James L. Dalton (our subject) were: Zilpha, who married Thomas D. Mock; Zillah who married Jeff Stubblefield; Rufus C, still living at Doniphan, Missouri; Zimriah, who drowned at age 14; Mary Elizabeth, who also died in infancy; Sarah P., who married Ben F. Spikes; Lively A., who married Thomas H. Wells. Mrs. Spikes and Mrs. Wells are living in Pocahontas at present; Ascenith, who died when 11 years of age, and two half-sisters, Dora Arnold, who married Ervin Reynolds, and Ida Belle Arnold, who married Andrew Conner. Mrs. Reynolds lives near Elm Store.

The life story of James L. Dalton would be appropriate subject matter for a Horatio Alger story. He rose from the position of a practically uneducated backwoods boy to become the owner of the largest department store in the Middle West and head of one of the world’s largest business machine manufacturing plants, devoted to the manufacture of the Dalton Adding and Calculating Machine, of which he was inventor.

When a small child, living with his mother and other children he was constantly engaged in experimenting with machinery. His father died when James L., was 12 years of age. An older member of the family once said that James was “all the time fooling with wheels.” His mother bought a sewing machine about this time and the boy made an exact copy of it of wood, and it would sew.

The year he was 18 he decided to go forth into the world and seek his fortune. With $60 which he obtained from a bale of cotton which he grew in the hills of what is now Baker township, Randolph county, he set forth. He first went to St. Louis. Finding no job he went on to Chicago. Finding nothing to his liking he came back to St. Louis where he obtained a job in the old William Barr Dry Goods Company at a salary of $5 per week. This was in 1884. After working there a short time he came back to Doniphan, where he went to work in a hardware store of his future wife’s relatives at $12 per month and board. He was soon made a partner and later became sole owner. He built this business up to where he saw greater possibilities in the larger town of Poplar Bluff, to which town he moved. It grew to be the largest department store in the whole Midwest and one year the retail sales reached $765,000.

All the time he was building this great store business he was still thinking about “wheels.” Observing that the adding machines of that period were complicated arrangement of keys and other cumbersome contraptions, James L. Dalton there decided that he would build a better one!

Mr. Dalton turned the store over to his son and others and devoted his entire time to the adding machine. He once stated that during this time he was “president, general manager, factory manager, timekeeper, paymaster, bookkeeper and chief salesman.” The first factory was in a side room and Mr. Dalton said that during that period the three or four mechanics who built the first machines watched him leave on a sales trip with great interest, because, as he said, “if I didn’t make a sale they didn’t get paid.” But after a few years, aided with the capital of friends, and a refusal to become discouraged and quit, success came his way. The machine began to sell on the market and 200 sales offices were ultimately opened up in different parts of the world, and sales ran up to $1,000,000 worth a month. The job had been done.

Besides being a merchant of great success and prominence and an internationally known inventor and manufacturer, he became a brilliant speaker and writer. Hearst’s Magazine published a feature article on the life of James L. Dalton many years ago, in which the feature writer stated that, “Although he was never in his life taught to ‘parse’ a sentence, he is now a brilliant speaker and writer, the recipient of requests from leading chambers of commerce and other civic clubs throughout the country to address their conventions and banquets.”

Mr. Dalton was identified with many civic and fraternal bodies and always took great interest in the affairs of business and the state.

At the age of 22, while living in Doniphan he was elected Master of the Masonic Lodge. At 26 he was District Deputy Grand Master of the State of Missouri.

He was the first Republican ever elected to the State Legislature of Missouri from Ripley county.

James L. Dalton, although not a highly educated man, had a fair education. Some feature writers who “wrote up” his life after he became prominent, seemed to desire to leave the impression that he was unlearned. This was not true. He attended the country schools near his home. Some of these schools were at Bakerden, Warm Springs, Doniphan and at Dalton. He also attended the old La Crosse Institute at La Crosse in Izard county. He and his brothers and sisters would cross Elevenpoint river in a “dugout” canoe when they attended school in Dalton. His teacher at Bakerden was Prof. William Thomas. Later Mr. Dalton taught school for a time at Dalton, Bakerden, and seven months at Elm Store, assisted by his sister, Neeta.

All this was before he went forth into the outside world to make a name for himself and to bring honor not only to himself but his homeland as well.

A photograph at the Dalton Adding Machine Factory was carried in a number of national weeklies during the days when Mr. Dalton was actively at its head in Poplar Bluff, and the caption under the picture stated “This is the industry which has carried the name of Poplar Bluff around the Globe.”

Such is a condensed story of the life of a typical Ozark mountain lad who hailed from that part of our great nation known as Randolph county, Arkansas and Ripley county, Missouri, to become the best known citizen who has ever called this section home.

James L. Dalton was not only a great business man, he was also a great friend to many and a neighbor to all who lived near him. He was proud of his home, his family and his native country.

In 1913 he came back to the land of his childhood and staged a big family reunion, to be held at the home of his sister, Mrs. Thomas H. Wells, near the town of Dalton. Here assembled at the invitation of James L. Dalton, a total of 257 Daltons who represented his kinsmen in this section. The invitation cards which he sent out stated that “All Daltons, Daltons’ relatives and prospective Daltons were invited to attend.” Those two days, July 2 and 3, in the year of 1913 were happy days in the memory of this family.

(The author of this history remembers with pleasure this occasion which we attended, together with our grandfather, grandmother, father, mother, and other members of our family. I was then 12 years of age and took my first auto ride there in a “shiny 1912 model Ford” which belonged to Joseph Wright of Doniphan, the only automobile there those two days!)

Biography of James L. DALTON

One of Poplar Bluff’s most successful business men was the late James L. Dalton who progressed from $12 a month clerk in a hardware store to the presidency of the Dalton Adding Machine Company, a $10,000,000 concern manufacturing upwards of 60,000 machines a year, during his lifetime.

J. L. Dalton was born on a Ripley county farm on December 29, 1866, the son of William Marion and Mary Carolina Dalton. He left home at 14 to attend high school at Warm Springs [Randolph Co.], Arkansas and at the age of 16 taught a small school near his home for one year before obtaining

employment as a clerk in the hardware store of J. R. Wright at Doniphan.

Although Mr. Dalton had many interesting experiences while working at Doniphan and learned much about the store, his business career did not really begin until three years later when he became manager of the hardware store owned by E. W. And J. R. Wright in Poplar Bluff in 1885. After a few months as manager of the business he bought a half interest in the concern which then became know as the Wright and Dalton store. In October of 1887 he married Miss Clara Wright, a sister of J. R. Wright. In his only effort to seek public office, Mr. Dalton was elected to the Missouri legislature by a large majority of votes in 1900. The Wright-Dalton store flourished under Mr. Dalton’s dynamic personality and commercial genius, especially during the depression of 1893, one of the worst in history. A year before that depression, Dalton erected a four story building at Main and Poplar streets and organized the Wright-Dalton-Bell- Anchor department store, a merchandising business that ran up to $750,000 a year with a sales force of 125 persons and 20 delivery wagons. At that time, Poplar Bluff had a population of 7000 persons.

Folks thought that Jim Dalton had struck his life work when he assumed management of the W-D-B-A store. Mr. Dalton thought so himself and no part of his future plans included dropping his own splendid merchandising business in order to incubate a new-born adding machine venture, into which he put some money purely as a secondary investment. Yet that is exactly what he did and he did it through loyalty to friends who had invested not in the machine but, as one of them put it, in Dalton himself.

A friend named Hopkins in St. Louis invented the machine and persuaded Mr. Dalton to help finance its manufacture. Mr. Dalton invested some money in the venture and manufacture started in a building at the northeast corner of Main and Pine street.

In 1904 Mr. Dalton became president of the Dalton Adding Machine company, although he did not relinquish his manager ship of the W-D-B-A store company until 1908 when affairs of the manufacturing concern required his full time. He appointed John Berryman as manager of the department store, although he retained controlling interest in the concern.

Mr. Dalton tackled the problems of the adding machine company with the same vigor he had put in his merchandising ventures, always working at least 14, and sometimes more, hours daily. He traveled extensively during his early years with the new concern and became one of the greatest salesmen the nation has ever known. The adding machine company started out with a few die makers as its charter employees but under the guidance of Mr. Dalton grew into a concern with agencies throughout the civilized world employing 2500 persons.

Many a man might consider it humiliating to start out selling adding machines with a heavy sample bag packed under his arm and interviewing the same people whose merchandise purchases had helped swell his former business to the $750,000 mark. Perhaps it was hard but Dalton did it just the same. And his sense of loyalty to friends had furnished the kick that forced him through the difficulty to comparative success.

Finally in 1914 it became necessary to move the factory away from Poplar Bluff to Cincinnati, Ohio, not because Mr. Dalton wanted to take it away from Poplar Bluff but because it was a matter of existence to the concern. Dalton could see that to remain in the small city, the factory would never grow beyond the status it maintained when it was located in the building which later became the Hamilton-Brown shoe factory and that he could not interest financiers in investing money in the plant while it was in Poplar Bluff in that early day. Mr. Dalton’s dreams were realized and the concern flourished in Cincinnati becoming one of the biggest successes the manufacturing world has ever seen. His machine out-classed all others and his line served all business from the smallest retailer to the billion dollar corporation.

In later years he organized an international distribution system and his machines were sold throughout the world until foreign exports consumed 20 per cent of the output of the immense factory.

Mr. Dalton’s dream was a reality at the close of 1925 but the dream was not entirely complete. He had never in life thought of stopping short of supremacy in his career as a leader of men and an organizer of business. While still a young man in appearance and vitality, Mr. Dalton was stricken with acute appendicitis at the age of 59. With his passing on January 11, 1926 not only Poplar Bluff and Cincinnati, but the entire nation lost a great business builder and a benefactor of mankind. From every corner of the nation and from foreign lands messages of regret and condolence came to the family. Mr. Dalton was returned to Poplar Bluff for burial.

Mr. and Mrs. Dalton were the parents of four children, Grover W. Dalton who resides at 433 North Main street and Miss Phoebe Dalton and Miss Mary Dalton who reside with Mrs. Dalton at the family home at 421 North Main street and Charles Dalton who died in 1926.

Although Mr. Dalton in his early days in Poplar Bluff spent most of his time in his mercantile business he erected a number of business buildings in the city. He erected the buildings on Broadway from the present location of the Gibbons hotel to the Bramur oil firm headquarters and the large four story building which stood where the Dalton building is now located and the buildings next door continuing south to the Saracini building in addition to the building housing the Stovall store and the present Dalton home on North Main street which was purchased in 1896. All of the Dalton children were born in Poplar Bluff.

As long as time shall last the name of James L. Dalton will be among those illustrious Poplar Bluffians who achieved. During his residence here he was Deputy Grand Master of the Masonic Lodge and Master of the Blue lodge. He was zealous in every worthy civic undertaking and an active member of the Presbyterian church where he was an elder and superintendent of the Bible school for several years.

Notes about James L. Dalton

JAMES L. DALTON (Republican), of Poplar Bluff, was born in 1866, in Ripley county, Mo.; elected to the 41st General Assembly in 1900. Merchant; married.

The Margaret Harwell Art Museum in Poplar Bluff, Missouri, owes its existence to the generosity of its namesake and benefactor, the late Margaret Harwell — an amateur artist, businesswoman and civic leader. When Mrs. Harwell died in 1977, she left a part of her estate to the City of Poplar Bluff to establish a center for art classes and exhibits. In 1978, an Arts and Museum Advisory Board was formed to take on the task. In 1980, the city purchased the J.L. Dalton home, itself rich in local history and architecture, to house the museum. The Margaret Harwell Art Museum opened to the public in November 1981. Margaret (Morse) Harwell, an only child, was born December 10, 1908, in Patton, Missouri, but moved to Poplar Bluff as a young child. After graduating from Poplar Bluff High School, she attended business school then started an insurance company with her father and was later joined in the business by her husband, Art. Margaret was an active member of the Altrusa Club and the Business and Professional Women organization, a charter member of the Ozark Foothill Council on the Arts and active in the Poplar Bluff Artists Guild, which brought various art exhibits to town and arranged for them to be displayed at local financial institutions. She also served on the Poplar Bluff Public Library Board of Trustees.

The Dalton home was built in 1883 by Thomas H. Moore and was originally a one-story building. Moore added a second story in 1890. James L. Dalton purchased the home in 1896 and made extensive changes, remodeling the facade and adding a columned portico, curved bay windows, scroll trim and an iron fence. Unique features of the interior include decorative wooden scrollwork above the windows and doorways matching exterior scrollwork, curved glass windows, high ceilings and a beautifully carved stairway with leaded glass panels on its landing.

Dalton came to Poplar Bluff in 1885 from Ripley County, Missouri. He was married to Clara Wright of Doniphan, Missouri. They had four children: Grover, Charles, Phoebe and Mary. Dalton became one of Poplar Bluff’s pioneer merchants and in 1904 became the manufacturer of the country’s first ten-key adding machine, two of which are in the MHAM collection. In 1914, Dalton moved his family and his Dalton Adding Machine Co. to Cincinnati, where a larger workforce could help his company expand. They retained the Poplar Bluff home as Grover stayed behind to manage their retail business, the Wright, Dalton, Bell and Anchor department store. Grover later entered politics and became state chairman of the Republican party. James Dalton died in 1926 and his company was sold to Remington-Rand. The home remained in the family until it was sold in 1980 by the Dalton heirs to the City of Poplar Bluff.

The Wright-Dalton-Bell-Anchor Department Store building is located at 201 -205 S. Main Street in Poplar Bluff, Butler County, Missouri. Constructed in 1927-28 after a tornado destroyed much of the town’s central business district, this two-part commercial block reflects early 201h century preferences for simplicity in commercial building design. The two-story building is constructed of buff, wire cut brick with classically derived terra cotta embellishments around the storefront and along the cornice line. The primary facade faces east onto South Main and is distinguished by shaped parapets with terra cotta coping and quatrefoil insets and a decorative terra cotta signboard and storefront surround. Though simpler in overall design, the decorative terra cotta cornice and water table continue from the fapde onto the north (Poplar Street) elevation. In c. 1947, the F.W. Woolworth Department store moved into the building, and alterations to the interior and storefront were undertaken at this time. Much of this historic alteration remains intact, notably the storefront configuration and many of its historic materials. In more recent years, some of the original windows on the second story have been replaced with smaller units, though many original 111 wood sash windows remain. Overall, the building retains a high degree of integrity and conveys its significance an important department store and commercial property

James L. Dalton and the Wright-Dalton-Bell-Anchor Department Store

The booming economy in Poplar Bluff drew investors from across the region, including James L. Dalton. Dalton came to the city in 1885 from neighboring Ripley County to work as a clerk in the hardware store of J.R. and E.W. Wright. Dalton gained experience working in the Wrights’ Doniphan store, and likely moved to Poplar Bluff to help organize and manage the brothers new business that opened in 1886. Dalton became manager of the store and soon bought out the interest of J.R. Wright. Dalton kept close ties with J.R., and married Wright’s sister, Clara, in 1887.’Though young when he came to Poplar Bluff, only 19, Dalton apparently had a good deal of business acumen. In 1888, Good speed’s History noted that he and his partner had a “large and select stock that filled ” a two-story brick block, 36 X 110 feet. By the turn of the century, Wright and Dalton and taken on additional partners and moved into a four-story building on the corner of S. Main and Poplar streets. According to one history, the business now known as the Wright-Dalton-Bell-Anchor Department Store “grossed up to $760,000 a year, with a sales force of 125 persons and 12 delivery wagons.”‘ In discussing his store, Dalton noted:

One of our greatest accomplishments was the bringing into this town a solid train load of 35 cars of merchandise. The general manager of the Missouri Pacific Railroad personally made the trip with this train for a considerable part of the journey and we entered the town with green and red fire and a great demonstration. Though a great deal of history has not been compiled on the store, the size and location of the building’ as well as the size of the merchandise shipment indicate that this was one of the largest and most prominent retail stores in Poplar Bluff in the early 20″ Century. Though the Wright-Dalton-Bell-Anchor Department Store (often referred to as Dalton Store or the WDBA Store), made Dalton a well-known regional figure, it was his other businesses that brought wide-spread recognition to the Dalton family and to Poplar Bluff. Around 1900, Dalton invested in an invention developed a man named Hopkins of St. Louis, the 10 key adding typewriter. The Dalton Adding Typewriter Company was incorporated in 1903. Its original location was in the Davidson Building on Main and Pine Streets, and employed 25 people. The company soon grew to 100 employees, and moved to a purpose-built factory building along the river front in 1909.

The following was a law suit for the Dalton Adding Machine Co. against another Co.

DALTON ADDING MACH. CO. et al. v. MOON-HOPKINS BILLING

MACH. CO. et al.

(District Court, E. D. Missouri, E. D. March 1, 1915.) No. 4067.

1. Patents—Suit For Infringement—Estoppel To Deny Validity.

In a suit for infringement of a patent against a corporation and two individuals, who organized such corporation while application for the patent was pending, one of whom was the inventor and applicant, and the other of whom had knowledge of the invention and the application, and that the same had been assigned to complainants, all three defendants are estopped to deny the validity of the patent on the ground of anticipation or want of novelty.

In Equity. Suit by the Dalton Adding Machine Company and the Addograph Manufacturing Company against the Moon-Hopkins Billing Machine Company, Jonn C. Moon, president, and Hubert Hopkins, vice president, of said company. On final hearing. Decree for complainants.

Banning & Banning, of Chicago, 111., and Rippey & Kingsland, of St. Louis, Mo., for complainants. Frederick R. Cornwall, of St. Louis, Mo., for defendants.

DYER, District Judge. This is a bill in equity, filed by complainants against defendants, charging infringement of letters patent of the United States, numbered 1,039,130, issued September 24, 1912, to the Addograph Manufacturing Company, and to the complainants as assignees of the defendant Hubert Hopkins. The facts touching the history of this patent are plain, and, as I understand them, well understood and practically undisputed. The invention covered by the patent relates to improvements in adding and writing machines. The facts, as I gather them from the record and the argument of counsel, that led up to and finally culminated in the granting and issuance of the patent, are substantially as follows:

Application for this patent was filed in January, 1903. Its history, however, dates back to a period prior to the filing of the application. In December, 1901, one James L. Dalton was a merchant residing and doing business in Poplar Bluff, Butler county, Mo. Hubert Hopkins and his brother William at that time lived in St. Louis. Hubert Hopkins had theretofore made certain inventions in adding and typewriting machines, and had conveyed a half interest in the same to his brother William. The two were unable to manufacture and put on the market these inventions. In December, 1901, William Hopkins went to Poplar Bluff and there succeeded in interesting James L. Dalton and others of that city in financing the enterprise. The result was that a contract was entered into by and between the Hopkins brothers and Dalton and his associates by which the latter agreed to furnish $2,500—a part of which was to go to the former and a part of it was to be expended in the manufacture of the first machine, so as to demonstrate its practicability. Shortly after this agreement was made the Hopkins brothers built the machine in St. Louis, using a part of the $2,500 for that purpose.

The money provided for by this contract proved insufficient, and a second contract was made and entered into by the same parties on the 28th of June, 1902, according to the terms of which an additional sum of money amounting to $1,250 was put up by Dalton and his associates. In consideration of this sum Hubert and William Hopkins were to assign a half interest in the inventions to a company thereafter to be organized, and in which title to the inventions should be placed. The machine was completed in September, 1902, and is one of the physical exhibits in the case, and is marked “Original Hubert Hopkins Machine.” This machine was exhibited in St. Louis in October, 1902. Various persons were invited to inspect it, for the purpose of obtaining further investments in the enterprise.

In December following the complainant the Addograph Manufacturing Company was organized, with a capital of $50,000, divided into 500 shares of $100 each; 249 shares were issued to Hubert Hopkins, and 1 share to his brother William. Thereafter, on the 24th of January, .1903, application for a patent was filed in the Patent Office. Three weeks after this application had been filed, Hubert Hopkins executed an assignment of the application to the Addograph Company. This assignment contained all the inventions claimed in the application. It requested that the patent be issued to the Addograph Company as assignee. Thereafter, on the 24th of September, 1912, the patent was issued, as Hopkins had requested.

It further appears from the evidence in the case that in 1903 Hubert Hopkins sold his stock in the Addograph Company to the American Arithometer Company. This stock, with a few additional shares it had bought, gave it control of the Addograph Company. This left Dalton and his associates in the minority, and practically without voice in its control. It appears that Hubert Hopkins sold his stock for $5,000. To regain control, Dalton and his associates in the name of the Addograph Company had to and did pay to the Burroughs Machine Company (the successor of the American Arithometer Company) the sum of $40,000 for the stock Hopkins had sold for $5,000.

After the transfer of the stock by Hopkins to the American Arithometer Company the Addograph Company made a license contract with James L. Dalton for certain considerations, and a certain royalty to be paid the Addograph Company, giving to Dalton the exclusive right to make and sell the machines. After this there was organized the Adding Typewriter Company, to which Dalton assigned the license contract. After this, to wit, in 1909, the name of the Adding Typewriter Company was changed to the Dalton Adding Machine Company. This latter company thereupon became the exclusive licensee. These facts made it necessary to join the Dalton Company with the Addograph Company as a joint complainant.

[1] From the facts above stated it is claimed by the complainants that Hubert Hopkins is estopped from disputing the validity of the patent in suit. It is not only claimed that Hubert Hopkins is estopped, ‘but that the Moon-Hopkins Billing Machine Company (one of the defendants) is also estopped. The facts relied upon to show an estoppel of the Moon-Hopkins Company are briefly these:

After Hubert Hopkins and his brother sold their stock in and left the Addograph Company, they, in June, 1903, went to John C. Moon (president of the Moon-Hopkins Company) and told him that Hubert Hopkins had made some inventions in adding and typewriting machines, and that he and his brother desired to interest Moon and his associates in the organization of a new company to manufacture and sell the inventions that Hubert Hopkins had made. On the 6th of July, 1903, a contract was entered into between Hubert Hopkins, William Hopkins, John C. Moon, and Carey C. Crawford, by which they undertook to manufacture the inventions Hubert Hopkins represented that he had made. The outcome of this arrangement was the organization of the Moon-Hopkins Billing Machine Company. It is insisted by the complainants that Moon and his associates knew of the rights of the complainants; that Moon visited the Holland Building in St. Louis and saw the machine on exhibition, and that it was fully explained to him by Hubert and William Hopkins.

The facts before recited are contained in the record, and have been carefully and correctly set forth, as I believe, by counsel for the complainants. The statement of the facts as above given is unnecessarily long, perhaps, but in my judgment proper to be stated to a full and fair understanding of the situation.

The question of estoppel raised by these facts is in my judgment the most important question presented in the case. From the facts disclosed in the record I am satisfied, and so find, that Moon and his associates had knowledge of the inventions of Hubert Hopkins, and were fully advised of all that transpired in reference thereto, and had knowledge of complainants’ rights in and to the patent in suit.

These being the facts, as I find them to be, it would seem that the defendants and each of them are and should be estopped from claiming that the patent in suit is invalid, either on the ground that it was anticipated by prior patent rights or on the ground that it possessed no novelty.

The conclusion reached by me that the defendants are estopped from claiming that the patent in suit is invalid makes unnecessary the examination of the numerous patents set up in the defendants’ joint and several answers. Whatever the state of the prior art may have been, it is not available as a- defense in this action.

[2] The remaining question in the case is that of infringement. This I will not attempt to deal with, as expert witnesses and learned counsel have done. I shall content myself with simply announcing the result. The briefs and arguments of counsel on either side have been full and able. I will not undertake to reconcile the conflicting views of trained experts, nor the widely divergent views of learned counsel, but will state that my conclusions have been induced more from an examination of the physical exhibits in the case than from the testimony of experts and the arguments of counsel. The findings may be, in conclusion, summed up as follows:

1. The defendants are estopped from claiming the invalidity of the patent in suit.

2. Claims 7, 29, 32. 65, 113, 141, 142, 147, 153, 158, 170, 176, 185, 200, 235, 236, 238, 240, 241, 245, 246, 250, and 254 of the patent in suit have been and are infringed by the defendants’ machine.

It follows from these conclusions that the complainants are entitled to a decree against the defendants; and it is so ordered.

Dalton Adding Machine

Patented 1899-1912 ~ Introduced 1902 ~ Advertised 1909-28

Addograph Manufacturing Co, St. Louis, MO (1903)

Adding Typewriter Co., St. Louis, MO (1903)

The Dalton Adding Machine Co., Poplar Bluff, MO (c. 1903-14),

Norwood, Cincinnati, OH (1914-16)

1915 Price $125-$150; 1926 Price $100

Dalton merged with other companies to become Remington Rand in 1927.

1918 ad stated “2000 Daltons serving the Government in times of peace.” 1919 ad stated that the US government had over 3,000 Daltons. A later ad stated “The United States Government uses over 4000 Daltons” and indicated that “Tens of Thousands” were in use. An undated ad stated “Choice of 50,000 users.”

The 1928 Remington Rand catalog offered Dalton adding-listing machines ranging from models similar to the one pictured here (but without glass sides) to bookkeeping machines and a bookkeeping cash register.

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The History of The Dalton Foundries, Inc.

Researched, complied & edited by Rodney G. Dalton from sources on the World Wide Web.

The Warsaw Manufacturing Facility was founded in 1910 by Donald J. Dalton on Warsaw’s west side with 25 employees and one product – a home shoe repair kit. The foundry later moved to its present location 1924 and became incorporated as Dalton Foundries, Inc. in 1985, Dalton – Warsaw became an employee owned company. Warsaw expanded its customer base with the purchase of Newnam Manufacturing in 1992 and Stryker Machining in 1997. The company was then renamed Dalton Corporation.

However, it was not long before castings were being produces for other companies, and this soon became the major part of the business.

By 1913 more room was needed. The plant moved to the present location on East Jefferson Street. World War I saw the business engaged in the war effort and buildings were added to the plant.

In 1918 Sunderland Pump Company of Chicago was purchased and Big Boy Hand Air Pumps became one of our products.

In 1923 Mr. Dalton formed the Dalton Malleable Castings Company and added malleable castings to the existing line of gray iron castings. Later the same year the name Dalton Foundries, Inc. was adopted to include all activities. Business was expanded by adding customers whose names were well-known in American industry. In the 30’s when many other businesses were failing, Dalton Foundries managed to keep the doors open. No Dalton employee was laid off due to the depression.

In 1940, the Conrad Jack Company was acquired.

World War II again saw Dalton Foundries keyed to the war effort, during the 40’s all departments were expanded and new facilities were added. We made parts for bombs, mortar shells, gun mounts, marine valves, railroad castings, etc.

Upon the death of Mr. Donald J. Dalton in 1947, his son Bill headed the company until he passed away in 1952. Mr. Charles H. Ker became President and served in that capacity until 1959, at which time he was elected Chairman of the Board and W. M (Matt) Dalton became the President.

In 1959 the Endicott Church Furniture Company joined us as a subsidiary and in 1969 the first steel was poured at Dalton Precision in Cushing, Oklahoma, a new casting plant designed to produce quality castings in iron by the shell molding process.

Mr. Eugene E. Paul joined Dalton Foundries as President of the Corporation January 1, 1968. Mr. W. M. Dalton was elected Chairman of the Board and Mr. Charles H. Ker retired.

In 1968 plant improvements included installation of the Herman line and the Disamatic automatic molding line which went into production the latter part of 1972.

Because heavy capital expenditures would be required to modernize the malleable facility, and as the market potential for malleable castings has been declining, the Malleable Foundry was be phased out on June 21, 1974.

In 1975, the second Disamatic was installed.

In 1976, installed Herman II. . . . We continued to expand until 1982 when we had the first major layoff in the company’s history, due to business conditions. Dalton Precision operations closed and was placed for sale due to lack of business.

In 1985, the company was sold to the salaried employees under “Employee Stock Option Plan” (ESOP), and Kenneth Davidson was appointed President and CEO.

In 1989, we expanded the Core Room by 23,000 sq. ft. This expansion was made to give us enough room for least cost manufacturing techniques, improved environmental equipment, and safer working conditions.

In 1990, we phased out the Disamatic Foundry and started construction of a “State of the Art” large casting facility to better produce current Pallet Line jobs and attract new value added products. This year we acquired Newnam Manufacturing, Inc. a gray iron foundry in Kendallville, IN. . . .

In 1998, Dalton Corporation was acquired by Neenah Foundry Corporation which is a part of the ACP Holding Company.

Improving productivity earns Dalton Foundries Senate award; By Kanicki, David P.

Date: Wednesday, January 1 1992

A multi-faceted, long-term program to improve productivity and quality earned this Indiana foundry the Senate’s highest award.

When Dalton Foundries began its productivity push in the mid-1980s, having its efforts publicly recognized was not foremost in the company’s thinking, Rather, for the 121 management and clerical staff who purchased the gray iron foundry in 1985 through a leveraged employee stock owner-ship plan (ESOP), it was a matter of survival and profitability. They bet their jobs and retirements on the ESOP and knew they had a lot to lose if the buyout failed. They also realized they had much more to gain if it worked.

And work it has, perhaps even better than anyone could have guessed. By next year, the company will have paid off its debt and own the foundry free and clear. And its efforts didn’t go unnoticed. At a ceremony held last fall, the Warsaw, Indiana, foundry was presented’ the United States Senate’s highest honor, its Productivity Award, by Senator Richard G. Lugar (R-IN).

The award recognizes organizations that are using a particularly effective productivity improvement technique, practice or process that can be adopted by other organizations as a means of improving national productivity.

The term “productivity” has been bandied about for years as the key to business competitiveness. Along with product quality, critics have charged that in order to compete in the global market, manufacturing in America will need to become more productive. Like many buzz words, productivity may be the most overused and least understood of them all.

For the purpose of the Senate Productivity Award, the term productivity is broadly interpreted to mean ‘an organization’s most efficient and effective use of the resources available to it to produce a high-quality product or perform a high-quality service at lowest cost. These resources include employee knowledge and labor, modern technology, raw materials, energy, plant and equipment, money and time.”

Dalton takes a more formalized approach in clarifying the term. Larry Cohen, vice-president operations, explains: “Productivity is a measure of outputs to inputs. Inputs are converted into a product by customer demand in an environment structured by sociotechnical factors, market for the outputs, markets supplying inputs, and corporate strategies by means of a production process.’

The most important differences between the two definitions is the emphasis Dalton gives to customer needs, employee involvement and community relations. Today, the foundly’s management believes, these are co-equal factors in the productivity and quality equation with technology and cost cutting. This is because they understood that simply investing in new equipment or slashing costs would not provide the long-term stability it was looking for. It would take a sincere desire to serve customers, an interest in employees and an understanding of the role the foundry played in the community.

Nearly everyone on the Dalton Foundries’ management team can remember some less-than-positive instance that led the company to rethink its philosophies and attitudes toward employees, customers and the community. Cohen, for-example, recalls the bitter strike in 1979 that he says ‘really hurt the company.”

In trying to resolve the dispute, 10 management people and the local union officials made a trip to the United Steel Workers headquarters in Pennsylvania. ‘Our whole purpose in making that trip was to ask Can we tear down the wall between management and labor? ‘We came away with a commitment from both parties to work toward that end. That was the beginning of our employee involvement programs.”

On the customer side, Ken Davidson, Dalton Foundries’ president, retains a memory from many years ago when a couple of the company’s representatives returned from settling a dispute with a customer and claimed victory. “Their attitude was We showed them!’ We sure did,” says Davidson. “We showed them to the point to where we lost all their business! It was obvious, we needed a new perspective when it came to dealing with our customers.”

The neighborhood where the foundry is located presented another set of challenges. Founded in 1910, Dalton Foundries, like so many other older manufacturing concerns, watched the local community literally grow up around it. Kosciusko County, where the foundry is located, has become a resort area with beautiful lakes and attractive homes. The last things the foundry’s Warsaw neighbors wanted were the noise or the “distinctive aroma” of a foundry. Cohen recalls that in 1984 “a group of citizens actually banded together to shut us down.”

So when the Dalton family, decided to sell the company in 1985, they were approached about buying through the ESOP concept. And despite coming on the heels of one of the deepest manufacturing recessions in U.S. history, the business was profitable and its customer base stable. The risk of a leveraged buyout were obvious, but so were the benefits.

Almost as soon as the deal was struck, the new management team set out to develop a five-year plan centered directly on customer needs and in-house productivity.

Dalton’s management team knew going in that for the ESOP to succeed it would have to commit itself totally to developing a globally competitive organization. Explains Pete Dudchenko, director of sales and marketing, “We have a vested interest in the success of this organization. Our company retirement program is based on the value of the company’s stock. All of us as stockholders understand and do everything we can to satisfy our customers.”

But management’s commitment alone would not be enough. They had to demonstrate that Dalton Foundries was a class organization to do business with and to work for, they needed the commitment of their employees as well.

While from time to time Dalton had considered getting into ductile iron, it was determined that the best way to serve their customers was to specialize only in highly cored gray iron castings. Production today concentrates on medium to high-volume parts in the 5-700 lb range produced on their cope and drag lines using shell and cold box cores. The foundry’s goal is to utilize its total 100,000 ton annual melting capacity.

Dalton’s major markets include air conditioning, refrigeration, truck transmissions and diesel and marine engines. To assure the best customer service, the foundry has purposely maintained a narrow customer base.

Dalton foundry has had long history in Kendallville; Written by Dennis Nartker.

Saturday, 14 March 2009 00:00 – At times passers-by on South Main Street could see the fiery red, orange and yellow flames from the cupola furnace. The towering smokestack belches white smoke reminiscent of the 18th century industrial revolution in Europe. The 60-acre Dalton foundry (formerly Newnam foundry) complex on West Ohio Street oncer epresented the Kendallville area’s early industrial revolution, along with the Krueger Street Kendallville Foundry, Lane Foundry about a mile south of Kendallville and the McCray Refrigeration complex on McCray Court off North Main Street. The Kendallville Foundry, Lane Foundry and McCray Refrigeration facilities closed long ago. The rusted, deteriorating buildings still stand like symbols of Kendallville’s booming past where hundreds of workers toiled in dirty, dangerous surroundings to make parts for the automotive and appliance industries. Dalton foundry will soon join them, its huge furnace snuffed out, its machinery and equipment removed and sold, its structure torn down for scrap. The smaller Mahoney Foundry, 209 W. Ohio St., will be the only foundry operating in the Kendallville area. Friday is the last day for most of Dalton foundry’s almost 300 hourly and salaried employees as Kendallville’s last foundry closes. The plant will be completely closed down by April 3.Neenah Enterprises Inc. of Neenah, Wis., the foundry’s owner, announced on Dec. 9 the plant would close in March this year due to the pressure of an overall weak economy and the particularly difficult economic issues facing the foundry industry and manufacturing in general. The foundry makes gray iron castings for air conditioning, refrigeration, engine heads and other products. Mayor Suzanne Handshoe described the closing as catastrophic. Leonard N. Hicks, president of Local 262 of the Glass, Molders, Pottery, Planters & allied Workers Union for nearly 24 years, and a 40-year Dalton employee, called it a tragedy. Hicks, his wife, Mildred “Mickey,” and son Kenny, a supervisor, will also lose their jobs. Nicholas C. Newnam founded the family-owned Newnam Foundry company in 1920. It has survived two major fires, moves to different locations in Kendallville, work stoppages, and changes in ownership, including an employee takeover in the 1980s. It seems as the nation’ seconomy, goes so goes the foundry. This time it couldn’t survive the worldwide economic downturn.

Before stricter environmental regulations forced the foundry owners to install filters and scrubbers, residents on the city’s south side constantly complained of foundry residue coating their cars, homes and clothes drying on outdoor clothes lines. Roads and highways were once built with foundry sand. During the 1980s with emphasis on environmental protection, the state discouraged the use of foundry sand for road construction even though there was no proof it endangered the environment. Former Kendallville Mayor John Riemke supported the use of foundry sand for road-building and argued to no avail that the south side of Kendallville was built on it. In 2006 Dalton agreed to pay $66,143 in penalties and to more closely monitor and regulate missions at its Kendallville plant to avoid $400,757 in addition fines after the Indiana Department of Environmental Management charged the company with multiple violations of state law and permit requirements from 1997 to 2006 at its Warsaw and Kendallville operations. I recall a particularly controversial issue to go before the Kendallville Board of Zoning Appeals in the fall of 1988 involving the foundry, called Newnam Manufacturing at that time. Foundry management sought a use variance to establish a state-approved monofill in a sand and gravel extraction pit 1.5 miles north of Kendallville on Angling Road. The company planned to deposit what it described as non-hazardous solid waste material on the site. The foundry needed the site to deposit sand residue from its molding operation, and planned to build a clay bathtub to contain the sand and allow outside water to drain around the compacted clay walls. A state law introduced in 1986 prohibited foundries from storing sand on its property. A group of Angling Road residents complained the sand dumping would affect the nearby Duck Lake’s natural environment, increase truck traffic on the narrow road and decrease their property values. The controversy raged for two months and attracted all three Fort Wayne TV stations to the former City Hall council chambers for the Nov. 16 Board of Zoning Appeals meeting. Newnam Manufacturing employees owned the foundry at the time, so this wasn’t a major corporation trying to roll over a small community. The board voted 4-1 to grant the use variance. The foundry has deposited sand in the gravel pit for more than 20 years, but that will stop when the foundry closes. U.S. Sen. Evan Bayh, D.-Ind., visited the Dalton foundry in Kendallville in September 2004 and in May 2005 pledging to the workers to fight to keep jobs from going over seas. In November 2007 Kendallville City Council granted the Kendallville operation 10 years of tax abatement on $360,000 in new equipment. The new equipment did not create jobs but would help the company stay competitive, company officials told council at the time.

Last year Gov. Mitch Daniels honored the Dalton foundry in Kendallville with a Half Century Award for its loyalty and community service. Sunday’s newspaper will feature four Dalton foundry employees with a combined more than120 years of service describing their jobs and the impact the foundry’s closing will have on their lives.

Gray iron foundry to close Indiana plant Dalton Corp., based in Warsaw, IN, has not filed a Chapter 11 bankruptcy claim as previously reported. According to a release from the company, Dalton parent Neenah Enterprises Inc. will close the Dalton foundry in Kendallville, IN, in early March 2009.

“The decision to close the facility was made due to the pressures of an overall weak economy and the particularly difficult economic issues facing the foundry industry and manufacturing in general,” according to the statement. While acknowledging “the outstanding efforts of the excellent workforce at the Kendallville facility,” it added its regrets about job losses at the plant and the effects on the community there.

About 200 workers would be affected by the closing, according to local news reports.

A holding of Neenah Foundry Corp. since 1998, Dalton Corp. has its main plant in Warsaw, and the second operation in Kendallville. Their total capacity is about 200,000 tons/year.

Dalton also operates a machining plant in Stryker, OH. Its products are gray iron castings ranging from 5 lb. to 600 lb., for air conditioning and refrigeration systems, automotive engines and gear boxes, stationary transmissions and heavy-duty truck transmissions.

Neenah to Close Dalton’s Kendallville Plant – Released on December 11, 2008

Neenah Enterprises Inc., Neenah, Wis., announced that its Dalton Corp. subsidiary will close its metal casting facility in Kendallville, Ind., in early March 2009.

Dalton, which maintains metal casting facilities in Warsaw, Ind., and Stryker, Ohio, as well as Kendallville, is a supplier of gray iron castings for air conditioning/refrigeration, engines, gearboxes, stationary transmissions and heavy truck transmissions, among several other markets.

According to a press release issued by Neenah, the decision to close the facility was made due to the pressures of a weak economy and the issues facing the metal casting industry and manufacturing in general.

“The company commends and appreciates the outstanding efforts of the excellent workforce at the Kendallville facility,” read the release. “The company regrets the effect the loss of jobs has on our people and the community.

Neenah Enterprises Inc. is the indirect parent holding company of Neenah Foundry Company. Neenah Foundry Company and its subsidiaries, including Dalton, manufacture iron castings and steel forgings for the heavy municipal market and selected segments of the industrial markets.

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Dalton Lathes & Combination Machine

Researched, complied & edited by Rodney G. Dalton

Hubert Dalton (1866–1952) the manufacturer of Dalton lathes, was English by birth and the first born of eleven children. He moved to the United States when he was 16 and found work in New York as a toolmaker and machinery salesman. His subsequent and very successful career as a businessman involved several companies including the Dalton Motor Car Company, the Dalton Manufacturing Corporation of New York (making lathes), the Dalton-Thibault Corporation of New York , the Armstrong Products Corporation (late 1920’s), the Willowbrook Corporation (a nursery business – Dalton had a love of hybridising orchids) and the well-known Dalton Tool & Machine Corporation based in South Beach CT. The latter company enjoyed a well-equipped plant where castings could be poured and parts and accessories machined for lathes and other lines.

Production of lathes began, it is believed, in 1910 with the “OT” Series, a 3.5-inch centre height machine of light build. The various models were then built in “Lots” numbered 1 to (possibly) 8 with each assigned a fresh set of serial numbers – and hence some duplication, though of course within the different Lots.

The New York branch seems to have started operations at the outbreak of the First World War, in 1914, and finished (having never made a profit, and being forced into liquidation) in 1925. Court records from 1933 show that Mr. Dalton refunded creditors some $365,000 from his own pocket, a deep one almost certainly filled by profits from his other interests including the extensive South Beach Plant (constructed in the early 1920s and first occupied by the Welte-Tripp Pipe Organ Company). The papers appear to show that, although production of lathes was officially moved to South Beach during 1925, the New York address was still being used – some New-York-built machines being discovered with their address details on the gear chart overlaid with a small tag giving the South Beach location. The youngest Dalton known is Serial 7014, manufactured in 1929, though production may have continued for a little while longer into the years of the Great Depression. After being vacated by Dalton, the South Beach plant was taken over (in 1931 or 1933 and complete with all the existing machine tools for the production of lathes) by the Swedish vacuum cleaner company Electrolux as their first American factory.

Early Dalton lathes, as might be expected, were of light built and show considerable variation in design from year to year with, for example, three different types of tumble-reverse mechanism discovered. “Lot 4″ lathes had probably arrived by 1914 (and coincided with Dalton’s first patent application) and by the time “Lot 5″ models had become the “Lot 6″ type (of the 1920s) changes had been so extensive that they could be considered equivalent in status to a South Bend – with a particularly heavy build and, consequently, a greater weight than their competitors. The Lot 6 Type (Models B-6) were of a particularly complete specification with power sliding and surfacing feeds driven by a separate power shaft below and parallel to the leadscrew. Even the cast-iron stand was special, being built on two stout plinths with the line of three drawers across the top labelled Tools, Collets and Tools. Unfortunately, not all Dalton models can be precisely identified – and examples have surfaced where the exact model remains, for the moment, a mystery.

One item that appears to have exercised most concern at the Dalton company was how to drive the lathes – the result being a remarkable variety of countershaft types. Some were conventional fast-and-loose countershafts (either wall, ceiling or even, in some remarkable cases) bench mounted. Other were attached to the lathe by inordinately high cast-iron pillars – in order to achieve a decent length of flat belt – whist others were built neatly onto the back of the bed with a pair of jockey pulley to change the direction of the belt run from vertical to horizontal. Some incorporated clutch units and others had the most massive of base plates and elegant belt guards.

Dalton’s ordinary lathes were of an absolutely conventional pattern and listed with swings of 7-inches, 8-inches and 9-inches with backgear and screwcutting by changewheels only – the jump to a gearbox-equipped lathe never being made. A rarer 6-inch lathe (with a 3-inch centre height) was also produced, but details of this machine are, for the moment, uncertain. A variety of interesting stands were available, including some with remarkable (and rather over-engineered) motor drive-mountings and one with a column plinth and single-pedal drive.

One very unusual Dalton was the “Combination Machine” – a large and heavy unit but based on a standard Dalton bed and carriage; this model was obviously a new departure for the Company with elements of the design protected by patents taken out in July of 1921 and February of 1923. The lathe was originally advertised as being of: “special interest to garage and steam-ship owners” and was claimed to occupy: “one fifth of the space taken up by separate machines of the same type” and, of course, to need just: “one-fifth of the power to run” – although using all the combinations at once on the Dalton would have been impractical.

The Motor-Drive lathes were supplied with a set of change wheels for screw cutting, a drive plate, large and small faceplates, a fixed steady, eight spanners, a crank handle to elevate the miller knee, a drill knock-out drift, a round drilling table with base to mount on the rectangular milling table, a plain milling vice, four clamp bolts, one milling arbor, an oil pot and driving belt.

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The story of the William Dolton Company

William Dolton & Co., Wholesale Grocers, Nos. 114 and 116 North Warren Street.—One of the largest and most enterprising wholesale grocery houses in this State is that of William Dolton & Co., whose model structure is centrally located at Nos. 114 and 116 North Warren Street, and was originally established in the year 1858 by Mr. Dolton, in a substantial brick building erected by him on Warren Street, near Hanover, and next door to the present commodious premises. The building had a frontage on Warren Street of 33 feet and a depth of 105 feet, was three stories high and was considered a fine business edifice at the time of its erection.

In 1865 Mr. Jonathan H. Blackwell became associated with Mr. Dolton and the business has since been conducted by them under the firm-name of Wm. Dolton & Co. In 1872, finding that the capacity of the building in which they were located was unequal to the demands of their constantly and rapidly-increasing business, Mr. Dolton erected another magnificent brick structure immediately adjoining his old quarters, which is far superior to any building erected in this city for business purposes. It is 39×130 feet in size, with four floors besides the attic and basement; the six floors having a combined storage capacity of 30,000 square feet. In the basement is stored their large stock of syrups, molasses, fish, provisions, etc. The first floor is used as a salesroom and has stored in it a large quantity of various kinds of goods. The counting-room, 12×40 feet, extends along the southern side of this room. It is divided into suites of offices for the different clerks, each having a private entrance and neatly and conveniently fitted up. On the left is the elegant private office of the members of the firm. Broad and easy stairways in front and rear lead from floor to floor. The second floor is used as a sample, sales and storeroom. Among the great variety of goods stored on this floor are teas, sugars and spices, of which they handle large quantities. On the third floor is stored immense quantities of canned goods, coffees, etc. The fourth floor is used for storing the wooden and willowwares and other merchandise. The building is heated by hot water-pipes from top to bottom, has telephone communication with all the principal places of business, etc. To the rear of the main building, separated there from by an open passageway leading from the second story and the ground approach, is located the engine and machinery, spice-factory and coffee-roasting establishment. The building is built of brick, two stories in height, 25×40 feet in size and is supposed to be fire-proof. A ten-horse power “Baxter” engine, supplied by a fifteen-horse power boiler, is used to drive the coffee-roasters and spice mills and also the Otis elevator in the main building, which extends from the basement to the attic. The cost of the main building was upwards of $50,000. Early on the morning of the 24th of February, 1880, fire was discovered issuing from the third and fourth floors, and in a short time the entire two upper floors were a sea of flame. Through the superhuman efforts of the firemen the fire was subdued before the total destruction of the building. As it was, the loss exceeded $60,000, which was nearly covered by insurance. Before the smoke of the debris had cleared away the firm had informed their patrons by circular-letter that no delay would accrue to the business, so promptly and energetically was the disaster met. An extra force of workmen were employed and the business was soon under headway. A few weeks thereafter the premises were entirely restored to their former condition and the business assumed its accustomed regularity and system.

They deal in all kinds of first-class groceries and provisions, such as syrups, sugars, teas, coffees, spices, starch, rice, canned and dried fruits, butter, cheese, hams, smoked meats, lubricating and illuminating oils, tobaccos, etc. All the spices which they sell are ground and put up by themselves and guaranteed to be strictly pure. They handle all grades of sugars, their annual sales amounting to upwards of 15,000 barrels. Their butter and cheese comes principally from the State of New York. They own an immense refrigerator-building valued at $20,000, in which a uniform temperature is maintained the whole year; in this the butter, fruits, meats and other goods requiring an even temperature are stored, thus enabling them to furnish their numerous patrons at all seasons of the year with goods fresher and nicer than when they arrived in the city. All of their hams, etc., are smoked by themselves and “Dolton & Co.’s” hams have secured an enviable reputation in the market. They have four large smoke-houses connected to the main building by bridge-way, the capacity of which are 500 tierces of smoked hams a week. They also have a wash-house attached, where all of their meats are thoroughly washed and cleansed before smoking. They deal in lubricating and coal oils, making a specialty of the latter. They have a large iron tank which, by special arrangements made with the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, is filled directly from tank-cars. The oil in which they deal is a superior article of highest standard white coal oil, procured directly from the oil regions. This they supply in good, tight barrels, prepared and filled under their own immediate supervision and is gauged by weight. As they purchase all their goods in immense quantities they obtain the very bottom figures and can compete with the New York or Philadelphia trade with ease. They have a dock on the Delaware and Raritan Canal and two large warehouses on the Hanover Street basin. They own a large powder magazine and are the agents for the Hazard Powder Company. Employment is given to a large and competent force of experienced men, including six salesmen, who are constantly traveling and selling to their trade which lies principally in this State and Eastern Pennsylvania. Numerous teams are also kept employed in the reception and delivery of goods throughout the city. Many of their clerks have been with the house for years and have grown up under the fostering care of the energetic proprietors. The house of Wm. Dolton & Co. is the largest wholesale grocery establishment in the State, the annual sales amounting to over one million of dollars and the business constantly increases in magnitude and importance.

Mr. William Dolton, the senior partner and founder of the house, is a native Trentonian and is the pioneer in this branch of industry in this city. He is the financier of the business and attends to purchasing the goods. It was considered a bold and venturesome step when, in 1858, he first embarked in the business. But he has proved more than equal to the task and, with his large and extensive business experience, today ranks as one of the foremost and ablest business men of the country. He is possessed of broad and comprehensive views and well-known liberality, while the enviable reputation which his upright and honorable career has won for him is a credit and an honor, not only to himself, but to the Capital City of the State. That his career through life has been successful almost beyond precedent, is entirely due to himself. So largely interested in business, the public have claimed the advantage of his experience in its local institutions and thus we find him the moving spirit in the organization of the First National Bank of this city, of which he was made one of its first Board of Directors. Eminently qualified for the position of President of the Standard Insurance Company of this city, he guards the interests of that institution with strict fidelity. As former President of the Board of Trade, he gave dignity to the deliberations of that body.

Mr. J. H. Blackwell, the junior partner, is a native of Hopewell, Mercer. County, N. J. He attends to the inside management and is a thoroughly experienced and practical man, having been in the business since boyhood and conversant with every detail of the immense business under his care, while his kindly and genial nature and courteous manners make him a favorite with their legions of patrons. One of the evidences of his popularity in the section where he was best known, was his election to the State Senate in 1874-7, which position he filled to the satisfaction of his large constituency. He has also served in Common Council of this city and occupied other positions of both honor and trust.

Jonathan Hunt Blackwell was educated in the public schools of his native place, at the New Jersey Conference Seminary at Pennington and in the Claverack Collegiate Institute on the Hudson. Upon leaving school at eighteen, he began his mercantile training in his father’s store at Hopewell, and remained there until attaining his majority. Desirous of obtaining a wider experience, he accepted a position in the business of William Dolton, a wholesale dealer in groceries at Trenton. Here he remained for a period of one year, then went to New York City and

engaged in business, remaining there until 1864.

At that time he returned to Trenton, and formed, with his former employer, William Dolton, a partnership which continued until the death of the latter. Mr. Blackwell then conducted the business under the firm name of William Dolton & Co. until 1902, when the firm was reorganized under the title of J. H. Blackwell & Sons.

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The History of the Royal Doulton Company

Researched, complied & edited by Rodney G. Dalton from various sources on the World Wide Web.

The Royal Doulton Company is one of the most renowned English companies producing tableware and collectables, with a history dating back to 1815. Operating originally in London, its reputation grew in the area known as The Potteries, where it was a relative latecomer compared to other leading names such as Spode, Wedgwood and Minton. Today, its products include dinnerware, giftware, cookware, porcelain, glassware, collectables, jewellery, linens, curtains, and lighting, among other items.

The Royal Doulton company takes its name from John Doulton. John Doulton, born in Fulham in 1793, learned his trade at the Fulham Manufacturing Company, well known as one of the first English commercial producers of stoneware, founded by master potter John Dwight in 1688. John Doulton completed his apprenticeship, earning a reputation as one of the best pot throwers in London.

John Doulton then joined forces with Lambeth Pottery owner Martha Jones and foreman John Watts to form Jones, Watts and Doulton in 1815. This factory was a tiny pottery located in Vauxhall Walk, Lambeth, a borough of London, England. The factory specialized in producing utilitarian salt glazed stoneware, similar to the Fulham factory.

Martha Jones broke ties with the company in 1820 and by 1826, now trading as Doulton & Watts, the company moved to larger premises in Lambeth Walk to cope with the rapid expansion it was experiencing.

In 1835 Henry Doulton, the second son of John, joined the firm, at the age of 15. He had a great aptitude for all aspects of pottery making and was soon making major contributions to the business.

In 1846, in response to greater health awareness and the need for glazed piping to replace the older porous brick sewers, Doulton built a pipe factory on what was to become the Albert Embankment. The demand for these products was tremendous and within three years Doulton founded factories in Dudley and St. Helens to meet the need for pipes and other sanitary ware.

John Watts retired from the company in 1854. At this time, trading now as Doulton & Company, John Doulton began experimenting with a more decorative pottery line. Many glazes and decorative effects were developed including faience, impasto, silicon, carrara, marqueterie, chine, and rouge flambe.

By 1871, Henry Doulton had launched a studio at the Lambeth pottery and offered work to designers and artists from a local art school. Their names included Frank Butler, Mark Marshall, Eliza Simmance, J. McLennan, John Broad, W. Rowe, George Tinsworth and the Barlow family (Florence, Hannah, and Arthur). Henry was responsible for new technological innovations to the production of ceramics including a steam driven potters’ wheel, which put the Doulton business ahead of its competitors by some ten years. Henry took full control of the company upon the death of his father, John, in 1873.

In 1882, Doulton purchased the small factory of Pinder, Bourne & Co, at Nile Street in Burslem, Staffordshire, which placed Doulton in the region known as The Potteries. Pinder, Bourne & Co. was well known at the time for their fine bone china. Doulton art director John Slater recognized the growing trend toward gleaming porcelain pieces in brilliant colors, and he saw this new acquisition as an opportunity to move aggressively into these enamel on glaze decorations.

By 1885, Doulton was producing world-class wares for an international clientele. Doulton won honors at major international exhibitions and was producing a tremendous variety of figurines, character jugs, vases and other decorative pieces in vibrant colors and using both under- and on-glaze enameling techniques. Doulton products also came to the attention of the British Royal family. Queen Victoria was so impressed with his wares that she knighted Henry Doulton in 1887 for his innovative contributions to ceramic art, and in 1901 King Edward VII bestowed upon the Burslem factory the Royal Warrant as well as allowing it to adopt its new name, Royal Doulton.

When Sir Henry died in 1897, Henry’s son Henry Lewis Doulton took over control of the company. The company continued to hire talented artists including the next art director Charles Noke, Harry Tittensor, Joseph Hancock, and many others.

The company continued to add products during the first half of the 20th century while retaining its reputation as a prime manufacturer of fashionable and high-quality bone china. The 2 world wars halted production temporarily but in between the wars new pipe works were established at Erith in Kent in 1925 (when production of pipes moved from the Lambeth site), a 1935 acquired pottery near Tamworth became the site for manufacture of electrical insulators and specialist chemical resistant ware and sanitary work slowly moved to Whieldon near Stoke-on-Trent in 1937.

After World War II, production emphasis shifted to simpler designs, which could be mass produced at more affordable prices. Another renowned art director, Jo Ledger, joined the company in 1954, and continued producing older designs while at the same time exploiting the newer techniques that allowed Royal Doulton to produce high quality works at modest prices.

The Lambeth factory finally closed its doors in 1956, due largely to new clean air regulations that prevented the production of saltglaze in the urban environment. Doulton figures were made at the Burslem plants from 1890 until 1978.

On September 30, 2005, Doulton’s Nile Street factory closed after being sold to developers. The majority of Doulton pieces are today made in Indonesia, although the higher-quality items are still made in England at the home of parent company Waterford Wedgwood in Barlaston, in the countryside south of the Potteries.

Another history of Royal Doulton:

Royal Doulton has been producing porcelain ceramics and tableware for approximately 200 years. John Doulton learned the trade of pottery making at the tender age of twenty two while working at the Fulham Manufacturing Co, well known as the first English commerical pottery, producing stoneware. Fulham was founded in 1688 and later assumed the name of Jones, Watts and Doulton. Sometime after the firms name changed to Doulton and made a variety of decorative products for the affluent buyer.

From a meager beginning John Doulton amassed one of the largest pottery and porcelain factories the world has ever known. In the year 1815. John Doulton, at the tender age of 22, invested his lifetime savings of £100 in a small pottery. His previous experience in other potteries gave him the knowledge necessary to attempt such an adventure.

The year was 1815 and the company founder, John Doulton, began producing practical and decorative stoneware from a small potery in Lambeth, South of London. With much effort in manufacturing utility items such as sewer pipe and the like, he went into partnership with John Watts. The firm took on the name of Doulton & Watts and become a well known firm in the area. As time passed, Doulton’s son Henry joined the firm as an apprentice.

Henry built up the business and relocated it 60 years later to Stoke-on-Trent.

England: The epidemics of 1832 and 1864 saw the death of thousands of people. Dr. John Snow

discovered the relationship of Cholera and the Broad Street pump. Doulton contributed greatly with the production of sewer pipe to improve the quality of the water supply. The above pictures are examples of samples of sewer pipe created and sold by Doulton.

From 1858 until his death, John Doulton directed Doulton and Co. Pottery in Lambeth, England. John Doulton began experimenting with a more decorative pottery line. Many glazes and decorative effects were developed including faience, impasto, silicon, carrara, marqueterie, chine, and rouge flambe. The factory operated in Lambeth until 1956. In the late 19th century at the original Lambeth location, fine artwares were decorated by artists including Hannah Barlow and George Tinsworth.

Henry Doulton

d. 1897

Sir Henry Doulton, the second generation Henry Doulton, the second son of John Doulton, joined the firm in 1835 and brought with him new technological innovations to the production of ceramics including a steam driven potters’ wheel which put the business ahead of its competition. Production then expanded to include hand-decorated stoneware.

In 1878, Sir Henry Doulton purchased Pinder, Bourne and Company of Burslem. Queen Victoria knighted Henry Doulton in 1887 for his innovations in the ceramic art. In 1882, the company became Doulton

and Company, Ltd. In 1882, a second factory was built in Burslem which still continues to produce the famous figurines, jugs, and table wares. It added porcelain production and earthenware production to its offerings in 1884. Also in 1884, Doulton added decorated porcelain to the other production lines. Doulton figures were made at the Burslem plants from 1890 until 1978. Stoneware production ceased at Lambeth in 1956.

Another history of Royal Doulton:

Royal Doulton is one of the world’s best-known fine china companies, designing and producing high-quality tableware and giftware under the popular brand names of Royal Doulton, Minton, Royal Albert, Caithness Glass, and Holland Studio Craft. The company operates five ceramic factories, four of which are in England and the other in Indonesia, and two glass factories in Scotland. Its products are marketed in more than 80 countries, with non-U.K. sales accounting for more than half the total and sales in the United States amounting to nearly 30 percent. In addition to its commercial product lines available in higher-end specialty shops and department stores–including the company’s own retail outlets, which include some 360 stores and concessions within department stores–Royal Doulton also has accepted commissions to produce unique china service for royalty, wealthy individuals, embassies, luxury hotels, and England’s House of Lords.

The history of Royal Doulton may be traced to the early 19th century, when John Doulton began an apprenticeship at London’s Fulham Pottery, one of the most important of the early commercial potteries in England. Becoming an accomplished potter known for his hard work and innovation, Doulton found employment in Lambeth, along the south bank of the Thames River, at a small pottery business owned by Martha Jones, who had inherited it from her late husband. In 1815, Jones asked Doulton and another employee, John Watts, to enter into a partnership with her, and the three founded a business called Jones, Watts and Doulton.

Producing utilitarian salt glaze and stoneware ceramics, stone jars, bottles, and flasks in its early years, the company eventually expanded its line to include mugs and jugs modeled in the likenesses of Napoleon and the Duke of Wellington, bottles for beer, gallipots (ointment pots), and blacking bottles. Allegedly, as a laboring child, Charles Dickens was said to have pasted labels on thousands of Doulton blacking bottles. Among product lines that became central to the history of Royal Doulton was the Toby jug, or beverage mug, first produced in the early 18th century. This jug was designed to represent a seated male figure, stout and smiling, with the spouts at either side of the mug’s rim serving as points on the character’s tricorn hat. Figurines were another important product line, and Doulton became known for the quality and attention to detail of its figurines. The earliest recorded figurative work produced by the company is attributed to John Doulton, who made a flask depicting Queen Caroline around 1820.

Five of John Doulton’s sons joined him in the family business, but the second son, Henry, took his father’s place in the pottery. Henry had become a master potter, learning all aspects of the business from the production stages through management, and he played an important role in product development and in improving working conditions at the Lambeth pottery. In the 1840s Henry Doulton established the world’s first factory for making stoneware drainpipes, a significant development that helped England achieve improvements in healthcare by providing more sanitary conditions through the provision of piped water. As the pipe business continued to thrive, Henry opened an art studio in the early 1870s where he encouraged and employed talented artists. Meantime, the company was incorporated in 1854 as Doulton & Co.

Henry also became known for his interest in the welfare of workers, a rare concern at a time when industrialists capitalized on cheap labor. Potteries generally were hazardous places during this time, as arsenic was used in painting and lead in glazing. Workers often succumbed to a debilitating lung disease then known as “potter’s rot.” In addition, laborers had to carry an enormous amount of weight, lifting several tons of materials from depths of eight to ten feet. To help workers with this burden, Henry Doulton obtained a mechanical hydraulic lifting device to help eliminate some of the manual labor. He also encouraged scientific research to determine more modern and safe methods of production.

In 1877 Henry Doulton bought a factory at Burslem in Stoke-on-Trent, a city known as The Potteries and home of English bone china. Other famous potters located here included Wedgwood, Minton, Beswick, and Royal Adderly. Indeed, the area became the center for potters, given its wealth of raw materials including clay for earthenware, coal to heat the kilns, as well as lead and salt for glazing. The established potters in this area initially were annoyed when Doulton moved in on their territory, and they predicted doom for the newcomer. Henry Doulton summed their attitude up thus: “In their view we Southerners know little about God and nothing at all about potting.”

Through persistence and careful investment in staff and plant, Henry Doulton did succeed. The company’s early success came from earthenware, decorated in the limited colors available from lead glaze at that time. This expansion into tableware design and decoration began in 1877, when Henry Doulton entered into a partnership with and later bought out Pinder & Bourne Company, a medium-sized producer of earthenware tableware. Later, Doulton’s art director John Slater and manager John C. Bailey encouraged Henry to pursue the idea of using bone china in production, a material that could be painted with more and brighter colors. By 1884, Henry Doulton had given his consent to the new medium, and the success of the results attracted to Doulton an outstanding team of modelers, decorators, and painters.

By the late 1880s, the company and its products had become internationally famous. In 1885 Henry was honored for his achievements, receiving the Albert Medal of the Society of Arts for his “encouragement in the production of artistic pottery.” Only one Albert Medal was awarded each year, and previous recipients had included the poet Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Sir Rowland Hill, honored for his creation of the penny postage system. Henry’s greatest honor, perhaps, came in 1887, when Queen Victoria awarded him knighthood; he was the first potter ever to be distinguished in this fashion. When Sir Henry Doulton died in 1897, he left behind a company that had diversified and established itself as one of the leaders in its field.

Sir Henry Doulton’s son, Henry Lewis Doulton, who had been made a partner in the firm in 1881, became a leader at the company. In 1901, four years after his father’s death, he received on behalf of the company the Royal Warrant of King Edward VII and was granted permission to add the word “Royal” to the Doulton name–a great and rare honor. As chairman and managing director, Henry Lewis Doulton guided the company through a difficult recession and period of war between 1900 and 1920.

Regarding product development, Henry Lewis Doulton was particularly interested in experimental glaze processes that produced unique, rare color effects. One such glaze, Rouge Flambé, a dramatic red and black glaze, remained unique to Royal Doulton, with a secret formula known only to three or four people in the company into the 1990s. The company also introduced new lines of character jugs, figurines, and decorative and utility china on earthenware and bone china bodies, and their popularity continued to grow. The character jugs represented a continuation of the beverage mugs of the 19th century and gained popularity in the 1930s when they were produced to represent famous characters from English songs, literature, and history.

In America, Royal Doulton became known as the finest English china. Indeed, Royal Doulton’s presence in the American market was an important part of the company’s growth and success. In 1945, a subsidiary, Royal Doulton USA Inc., was formed to help in the sales and marketing of the products in the United States.

Family leadership in the company continued. Ronald Duneau Doulton, a cousin of Henry Lewis Doulton, became one of the first directors of the business when it changed to a limited company, known as Doulton & Co. Limited, in January 1899. Lewis John Eric Hooper, son of Henry Lewis’s sister, joined Royal Doulton in 1902. Under Eric’s guidance much scientific research into the physical and chemical behavior of ceramic materials was carried out and new technology was developed and installed. His nephew, Orrok Sherwood Doulton, joined the company in 1935 and became director. Under his leadership, Royal Doulton captured the Queen’s Awards for Industry, Technological Innovation, and Outstanding Export Performance.

In 1960, Doulton & Co. introduced English Translucent China, a medium it pioneered and from which the costly ingredient of calcined bone had been eliminated. Through this new product, which became known as Royal Doulton Fine China, the company was able to offer the qualities associated with fine bone china at a modest cost to consumers.

The year 1968 saw the first series of acquisitions by Doulton & Co. It first purchased the world-renowned Minton China, a company founded by Thomas Minton in 1793. Minton dominated the industry during the middle of the 19th century and the company’s innovations included the acid gold decorating process, the majolica-type body, the pâte-sur-pâte relief decoration technique, encaustic tiles, and Parian statuary. In the same year, Doulton acquired Dunn Bennett, a company founded in 1876 when Thomas Wood-Bennett joined his father-in-law William Dunn to begin potting, concentrating on hotelware. In 1969, Webb Corbett and Beswick became part of the Royal Doulton group. Webb Corbett was founded in 1897 to make English full-lead crystal; Beswick traced its history to 1890, when James Wright Beswick and his son began producing both table and ornamental ware. The hand-cut crystal of Webb Corbett later would be rebranded under the Royal Doulton name.

Orrok Sherwood Doulton’s sons, Mark and Michael, both joined the company. Michael Doulton joined the company in 1970, working under a fictitious name while learning the different aspects of pottery production. Starting in 1976 he began acting as traveling ambassador for the company and with the formation of the Royal Doulton International Collectors Club, a group dedicated to the collection and preservation of Royal Doulton products, he served as honorary president beginning in 1980. Although the Doulton family remained an important and integral part to running the business, leadership extended outside the family in later years.

The greatest merger in the history of ceramics came in 1972, when Pearson PLC purchased Doulton & Co. Pearson had a controlling interest in Allied English Potteries and combined the two tableware groups under the Royal Doulton Tableware name. Pearson’s emergence in the pottery industry came about almost by accident. Originally, the Pearson empire was concerned mainly with construction engineering and the development of oil fields. But after investing money into a struggling business called Booth’s pottery during the 1920s, Pearson eventually became the controlling shareholder. Then, 20 years later, Pearson began increasing their pottery interests. In 1944, the company bought Colclough’s of Longton, a business founded in 1893 that made moderately priced bone china teaware. Pearson combined its Booth pottery with that of Colclough’s, forming a new entity called Booth and Colclough. In 1952, Pearson acquired the Lawley Group, a company controlling a national chain of specialist china and glass retailers and pottery manufacturers, including Ridgway and Adderly. Seven years later they purchased Swinnertons and Alcock, Lindley and Bloor, manufacturers of redware pots. Other names joining the group were Royal Crown Derby, Royal Albert, and Paragon. Royal Crown Derby, a luxury brand, traced its roots back to 1750 and founder William Duesbury; it was the oldest surviving maker of English porcelain. Founded in 1896, Royal Albert was a tableware maker whose “Old Country Roses,” introduced in 1962, was one of the best-selling bone china patterns of all time.

In 1974, Royal Doulton revived the concept of its original Lambethware, creating a casual tableware with a country charm and practicality, being oven and freezer proof and unaffected by detergent or the dishwasher. Royal Doulton Tableware Limited grew to represent approximately one-third of the entire British tableware industry.

Also during the period of ownership by Pearson, Royal Doulton management focused on achieving a greater degree of efficiency at its facilities. From 1987 to 1990, the company spent £10 million (approximately US$16.4 million) annually to automate and mechanize its factories, resulting in even finer quality and manufacturing flexibility. The company maintained a dozen factories producing all types and grades of product at that time.

Pearson began focusing more on its media interests in the 1990s and divested many of its other holdings. Royal Doulton plc was thus spun off from Pearson in December 1993 and was listed on the London stock exchange; according to analysts, the company had a market value of between £150 million and £200 million at the time.

Under the leadership of Stuart Lyons, Royal Doulton returned to a strategy of acquisition in its initial years as a newly independent company. During 1996 the firm acquired Holland Studio Craft and Caithness Glass, the latter for £5.5 million. Holland Studio had been founded in 1986 as a producer of collectible cold-cast resin sculptures. Among the subjects of these sculptures were dragons, wizards, frogs, bears, and pigs. Established in Scotland in 1961 as a maker of art glass, Caithness Glass expanded into paperweights in 1969 and soon gained a world-class reputation for the production of high-quality abstract paperweights. Another development in 1996 was the start-up of production at a new manufacturing plant in Indonesia. With sales of fine china stagnant, this new facility was key to the company’s strategy of expanding production of casual tableware for two of the company’s core export markets, the United States and Japan. The new facility also was designed to counter the effects of high U.K. labor costs. Overall sales were flat in 1996, increasing just four percent to £251.8 million.

The situation at the company soon worsened. Lyons resigned suddenly in May 1997, after 12 years at the helm, following a failed acquisition of a large U.S. fine china company whose identity was not revealed. The botched takeover cost Royal Doulton £1.6 million in advisers’ fees. Further acquisitions were put on hold as the new chief executive, Patrick Wenger, a 37-year company veteran, concentrated on turning around the company’s core business. A restructuring was launched that included a workforce reduction of 330 because of the closure of its St. Mary’s factory in Stoke-on-Trent as well as a restructuring of the group into six product divisions–tableware, giftware and collectibles, crystal and glass, hotel and airlines, prestige products, and licensing–each headed by its own managing director. Saddled with too much inventory, Royal Doulton drastically reduced its range of products, cutting the number of tableware patterns from 320 to 120 during 1997.

In December, Royal Doulton announced a fundamental restructuring program involving the cutting of a further 1,200 jobs (or nearly one-fifth of the remaining workforce), the consolidation of three warehouses into one, a temporary closure of most of the company’s U.K. factories, a further writedown of inventory, and the closure of some underperforming retail outlets. Overall, the company was aiming to reduce the number of product lines it produced from 48,000 to fewer than 20,000 over the four years that Grossart estimated it would take to complete a turnaround. Needing to modernize its product styles, it also was working to speed up the development of new concepts, attempting to reduce the time from design to market from two years to six months. Charges related to the restructuring added up to £47.7 million, resulting in a net loss for 1998 of £45 million.

In August 1999 a secondary stock offering raised £31.3 million. This fresh infusion of cash helped Royal Doulton reduce its net indebtedness from £43.6 million to £17.8 million over the course of 1999. The company was far from a turnaround, however, as sales declined a further 20 percent, to £190.3 million (US$307.6 million). About £11 million of the reduction represented sales that were lost because of interruptions in deliveries caused by the bungled implementation of new warehouse software being installed to meet Y2K compliance. Other reasons for the sales decline were the continued economic problems in Asia and the closure of an additional 61 underperforming retail outlets, including both stores and concessions within department stores. A further threat emerged in November 1999 when arch-rival Waterford Wedgwood plc acquired a 15 percent stake in Royal Doulton on the open market for £11.1 million. Waterford termed the transaction a “strategic investment” and not a prelude to an outright bid, but nevertheless declined to rule out a future bid if a rival takeover company emerged. For 1999, Royal Doulton posted a net loss of £34.6 million (US$55.6 million), including a restructuring charge of £9.1 million.

At the beginning of 2000, Wayne Nutbeen was promoted to chief operating officer, taking over day-to-day management duties from Grossart, who remained chairman. Nutbeen had worked for Waterford Wedgwood from 1988 to 1996, when he was hired away by Royal Doulton to head up the company’s Australian subsidiary (Nutbeen, in fact, had been in the accident in Australia that ended the career of Wenger). Nutbeen then became head of Royal Doulton’s North American operations at the beginning of 1999. Disposals marked the first six months of 2000. The head office in Stoke-on-Trent was sold. In addition, the venerable Royal Crown Derby porcelain subsidiary was sold to a management-led group for £16.5 million as the company continued to scale back its exposure to the higher ends of the market (Royal Doulton would, however, continue to distribute the brand). These moves helped cut pretax losses for the six months to June 30 from the £14.4 million figure of the previous year to £1.3 million. Sales were down 3 percent, a vast improvement over the year-earlier result. Although it was too early to declare the consummation of a turnaround, and a takeover by Waterford or some other firm was still a distinct possibility, Royal Doulton clearly had made much progress on its road to recovery.

It was during the early years of the reign of Queen Victoria (1837-1901) that the great revolution in personal sanitation occurred and Henry Doulton was at the forefront of domestic and industrial stoneware products. This enabled Doulton to became Britains leading manufacturer of sanitary ware as well as a major influence and producer of artistic pottery and commemorative, ornamental and tableware products.

In 1871 Henry established a studio at the Lambeth pottery and offered work to designers and artists from a nearby Art school. Several of these designers have come to represent the best that Doulton had to offer. Names like the Barlow family (Florence, Hannah and Arthur), Frank Butler, Mark Marshall, Eliza Simmance and George Tinworth are commanding increasingly higher prices. The Lambeth pottery ceased production in 1956.

It was during this time of intense creativity and expansion that Doulton came to the attention of the Royal Family. In 1882 Doulton acquired the small factory of Pinder, Bourne and Co. at Nile Street, Burslem, Staffordshire, in the heart of Bone China country. Henry soon discovered that as a Londoner he wasn’t welcome ‘up North’ and is ascribed with saying “In their view, we Southerners know little about God and nothing at all about potting”.

In spite of this, and through the artistic direction of John Slater, Doulton ware grew ever more popular with its tremendous variety of figurines, vases, character jugs and decorative pieces, and in 1901, the factory was granted the Royal Warrant by King Edward VII. This resulted in the company adopting bold new markings and a new name, Royal Doulton.

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